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2015陶卫行业数据盘点 整体形势较为严峻

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 河北廊坊整治房地产经纪机构违法销售问题 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

资金紧缺/业绩下滑/募投项目迷茫 LED封装企业木林森扩张“胜算几何”?

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

adolescent
成千上万在外求学的人或者在外工作的人都会在春节临近时回家团圆。这个传统是造成春运压力的主要原因。另外一个原因就是春节正好是中国两大黄金周之一,是许多人旅游的好时机。春运一般从节前15天开始到节后25天结束。
苹果公司和中国移动之间的协议尘埃落定之后,有关苹果下一款重大产品发布的供应链传言又开始浮现。Digitimes报道称,据“上游供应链的消息”,苹果公司正酝酿在明年5月发布一款5英寸屏幕的iPhone 6“平板手机”,在明年10月发布一款大尺寸平板电脑。
According to the Hurun Report’s annual China Rich List, Yao Zhenhua’s net worth surged more than nine times to $17.2bn last year, making him the country’s fourth richest person. Last year he was ranked 204th.
人的身体是十分脆弱的,有些娇弱的器官一旦破坏就永远难以复原。幸运的是,世界各地的研究人员都在研究能替代我们身体部位的生化机械器官。
6. 制定计划。
煽动家越是热情洋溢和野心勃勃,民主体制就越有可能沦为专制统治。

"He said if he didn't get that package within the next 53 years, he would call to complain," university spokeswoman Christine Kindl told Reuters news agency.
Allianz
Speaking of his desire to make their relationship to be 'official', Lagerfeld once said: 'There is no marriage, yet, for human beings and animals… I never thought that I would fall in love like this with a cat.
● “奥巴马总统证实,如果特朗普当选他将拒绝离开白宫”
Purchase products like magazine racks, shelves, and desk organizers that will keep your supplies and resources in order and close-at-hand. We love the File File, $24.95, at CB2.com (pictured above).

Footnotes

  • 长沙内五区全面推行二手房网签
  • 年龄:45岁

此外,有6个地区的GDP增速低于7%,其中东北的辽宁省以负增长垫底。
n. 暴行,侮辱,愤怒
This is second major English-language role for the French actress, who co-stars opposite Daniel Craig in Skyfall as the enigmatic Severine. The movie opens Nov. 9 in North America but already is shattering records internationally.
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最后西蒙点评:“你们在唱的时候眼睛里透露出坚定,唱得相当投入,第一次我听到你们唱这首歌的时候我觉得很惊艳,而这一次提高了不少,更上了一个台阶。”

社科院报告:2019年楼市转向“降温” 但不会剧烈波动

References

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